# Difference Between Panel Data And Cross Sectional Data #8 Time Series Vs Cross Sectional Data

### Difference

dif•fer•ence (difər əns, difrəns),USA pronunciation n., v.,  -enced, -enc•ing.
n.
1. the state or relation of being different;
dissimilarity: There is a great difference between the two.
2. an instance or point of unlikeness or dissimilarity: What accounts for the differences in their behavior?
3. a significant change in or effect on a situation: His tact makes a difference in the way people accept his suggestions.
4. a distinguishing characteristic;
distinctive quality, feature, etc.: The difference in the two products is quality.
5. the degree to which one person or thing differs from another.
6. the act of distinguishing;
discrimination;
distinction.
7. a disagreement in opinion.
8. a dispute or quarrel.
9. Also called  finite distance.
• the amount by which one quantity is greater or less than another.
• See  relative complement.
• (of a function f ) an expression of the form f(x + h) - f(x).
10. a differentia.
11. split the difference:
• to compromise, esp. to make equal concessions.
• to divide the remainder equally: Let's take half of the cake and let the three of them split the difference.

v.t.
1. to cause or constitute a difference in or between;
make different.
2. to perceive the difference in or between;
discriminate.

### Between

be•tween (bi twēn),USA pronunciation prep.
1. in the space separating (two points, objects, etc.): between New York and Chicago.
2. intermediate to, in time, quantity, or degree: between twelve and one o'clock; between 50 and 60 apples; between pink and red.
connecting: air service between cities.
4. in portions for each of (two people): splitting the profits between them.
5. among: sharing the responsibilities between the five of us.
6. by the dual or common action or participation of: Between us, we can finish the job in a couple of hours.
7. distinguishing one from the other: He couldn't see the difference between good and bad.
8. in comparing: no preference between the two wines.
9. by the combined effect of.
10. existing confidentially for: We'll keep this matter between the two of us.
11. involving;
concerning: war between nations; choice between things.
12. being felt jointly or reciprocated by: the love between them.
13. by joint possession of: Between them they own most of this company.
14. in the midst of, so as to make a symmetrical composition: a cross argent between four bezants.
15. between ourselves, confidentially;
in trust. Also,  between you and me, between you, me, and the post (lamppost, gatepost, etc.).

n.
1. Usually,  betweens. a short needle with a rounded eye and a sharp point, used for fine hand stitchery in heavy fabric.

1. in the intervening space or time;
in an intermediate position or relation: two windows with a door between; visits that were far between.
2. in between:
• situated in an intermediary area or on a line or imaginary line connecting two points, things, etc.
• in the way: I reached for the ball, but the dog got in between.
be•tweenness, n.

### Panel

pan•el (panl),USA pronunciation n., v.,  -eled, -el•ing  or (esp. Brit.) -elled, -el•ling.
n.
1. a distinct portion, section, or division of a wall, wainscot, ceiling, door, shutter, fence, etc., esp. of any surface sunk below or raised above the general level or enclosed by a frame or border.
2. a comparatively thin, flat piece of wood or the like, as a large piece of plywood.
3. a group of persons gathered to conduct a public discussion, judge a contest, serve as advisers, be players on a radio or television game, or the like: a panel of political scientists meeting to discuss foreign policy.
4. a public discussion by such a group.
5. [Law.]
• a list of persons summoned for service as jurors.
• the body of persons composing a jury.
• (in Scotland) the person or persons arraigned for trial.
6. a mount for or a surface or section of a machine containing the controls and dials.
7. a switchboard or control board, or a division of a switchboard or control board containing a set of related cords, jacks, relays, etc.
8. a broad strip of material set vertically in or on a dress, skirt, etc.
9. [Painting.]
• a flat piece of wood of varying kinds on which a picture is painted.
• a picture painted on such a piece of wood.
10. (in Britain) a list of approved or cooperating doctors available to patients under a health insurance program.
11. a lateral subdivision of an airfoil with internal girder construction.
• the space on the chord of a truss between any two adjacent joints made by principal web members with the chord.
• the space within the web of a truss between any two such joints and a corresponding pair of joints or a single joint on an opposite chord.
13. the section between the two bands on the spine of a bound book.
14. an area of a coal seam separated for mining purposes from adjacent areas by extra thick masses or ribs of coal.
17. a pane, as in a window.
18. a slip of parchment.
19. a photograph much longer in one dimension than the other.

v.t.
1. to arrange in or furnish with a panel or panels.
2. to ornament with a panel or panels.
3. to set in a frame as a panel.
4. to select (a jury).
5. [Scots Law.]to bring to trial.

### Data

da•ta (dātə, datə, dätə),USA pronunciation n.
1. a pl. of  datum.
2. (used with a pl. v.) individual facts, statistics, or items of information: These data represent the results of our analyses. Data are entered by terminal for immediate processing by the computer.
3. (used with a sing. v.) a body of facts;
information: Additional data is available from the president of the firm.
Data is a plural of datum, which is originally a Latin noun meaning "something given.'' Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning "facts or pieces of information'' (These data are described more fully elsewhere) and as a singular mass noun meaning "information'': Not much data is available on flood control in Brazil.It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. In other types of writing it is either singular or plural. The singular datum meaning "a piece of information'' is now rare in all types of writing. In surveying and civil engineering, where datum has specialized senses, the plural form is datums.

### And

and (and; unstressed ənd, ən, or, esp. after a homorganic consonant, n),USA pronunciation  conj.
1. (used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses) along or together with;
as well as;
besides;
also;
moreover: pens and pencils.
plus: 2 and 2 are 4.
3. then: He read for an hour and went to bed.
4. also, at the same time: to sleep and dream.
5. then again;
repeatedly: He coughed and coughed.
6. (used to imply different qualities in things having the same name): There are bargains and bargains, so watch out.
7. (used to introduce a sentence, implying continuation) also;
then: And then it happened.
8. [Informal.]to (used between two finite verbs): Try and do it. Call and see if she's home yet.
9. (used to introduce a consequence or conditional result): He felt sick and decided to lie down for a while. Say one more word about it and I'll scream.
10. but;
on the contrary: He tried to run five miles and couldn't. They said they were about to leave and then stayed for two more hours.
11. (used to connect alternatives): He felt that he was being forced to choose between his career and his family.
12. (used to introduce a comment on the preceding clause): They don't like each other--and with good reason.
13. [Archaic.]if: and you please.Cf. an2.
14. and so forth, and the like;
and others;
et cetera: We discussed traveling, sightseeing, and so forth.
15. and so on, and more things or others of a similar kind;
and the like: It was a summer filled with parties, picnics, and so on.

n.
1. an added condition, stipulation, detail, or particular: He accepted the job, no ands or buts about it.
2. conjunction (def. 5b).

### Cross

cross (krôs, kros),USA pronunciation  n., v., adj.,  -er, -est.
n.
1. a structure consisting essentially of an upright and a transverse piece, upon which persons were formerly put to death.
2. any object, figure, or mark resembling a cross, as two intersecting lines.
3. a mark resembling a cross, usually an X, made instead of a signature by a person unable to write.
4. the Cross, the cross upon which Jesus died.
5. a figure of the Cross as a Christian emblem, badge, etc.
6. the Cross as the symbol of Christianity.
7. a small cross with a human figure attached to it, as a representation of Jesus crucified;
crucifix.
8. a sign made with the right hand by tracing the figure of a cross in the air or by touching the foreheard, chest, and shoulders, as an act of devotion.
9. a structure or monument in the form of a cross, set up for prayer, as a memorial, etc.
10. any of various conventional representations or modifications of the Christian emblem used symbolically or for ornament, as in heraldry or art: a Latin cross; a Maltese cross.
11. the crucifixion of Jesus as the culmination of His redemptive mission.
12. any suffering endured for Jesus' sake.
13. the teaching of redemption gained by Jesus' death.
14. the Christian religion, or those who accept it;
Christianity;
Christendom.
15. an opposition;
thwarting;
frustration.
16. any misfortune;
trouble.
17. a crossing of animals or plants;
a mixing of breeds.
18. an animal, plant, breed, etc., produced by crossing;
crossbreed.
19. a person or thing that is intermediate in character between two others.
20. [Boxing.]a punch thrown across and over the lead of an opponent.
21. a contest the result of which is dishonestly arranged beforehand.
22. a crossing.
23. a place of crossing.
24. [Plumbing.]a four-way joint or connection.
25. an actor's movement from one area of a stage to another.
26. Also called  cross-trade. an arrangement for the simultaneous sale and purchase of a block of stock handled by a single broker.
27. [Mach.]spider (def. 6b).
28. (cap.) See  Southern Cross.
29. bear one's cross, to accept trials or troubles patiently.
30. take the cross, to make the vows of a crusader.

v.t.
1. to move, pass, or extend from one side to the other side of (a street, river, etc.).
2. to put or draw (a line, lines, etc.) across.
3. to cancel by marking with a cross or with a line or lines (often fol. by off or out).
4. to mark with a cross.
5. to lie or pass across;
intersect.
6. to meet and pass.
7. to transport across something.
8. to assist or guide (a person) across a street or intersection: The guard crossed the child at the traffic light.
9. to place in the form of a cross or crosswise.
10. [Biol.]to cause (members of different genera, species, breeds, varieties, or the like) to interbreed.
11. to oppose openly;
thwart;
frustrate.
12. to betray;
double-cross.
13. to make the sign of a cross upon or over, as in devotion: to cross oneself.
14. to set (a yard) in proper position on a mast.
15. [Obs.]to confront in a hostile manner.

v.i.
1. to lie or be athwart;
intersect.
2. to move, pass, or extend from one side or place to another: Cross at the intersection.
3. to meet and pass.
4. to interbreed.
5. [Theat.]to move from one side of the stage to the other, esp. by passing downstage of another actor.
6. cross one's heart. See  heart (def. 22).
7. cross one's mind. See  mind (def. 21).
8. cross one's path. See  path (def. 6).
9. cross over:
• [Biol.](of a chromosome segment) to undergo crossing over.
• to switch allegiance, as from one political party to another.
• to change successfully from one field of endeavor, genre, etc., to another: to cross over from jazz to rock.
• Also,  cross over to the other side. to die;
pass away.
10. cross someone's palm. See  palm 1 (def. 11).
11. cross up:
• to change arrangements made with;
deceive: He crossed me up after we had agreed to tell the police the same story.
• to confuse: I was supposed to meet him at the station, but got crossed up.

1. angry and annoyed;
ill-humored;
snappish: Don't be cross with me.
2. lying or passing crosswise or across each other;
athwart;
transverse: cross timbers.
3. involving a reciprocal action, interchange, or the like: a cross-endorsement of political candidates; cross-marketing of related services.
4. contrary;
opposite: They were at cross purposes with each other.
unfavorable.
6. crossbred;
hybrid.
crossa•bil′i•ty, n.

### Sectional

1. pertaining or limited to a particular section;
local or regional: sectional politics.
2. composed of several independent sections: a sectional sofa.
3. of or pertaining to a section: a sectional view of the machine.

n.
1. a sofa composed of several independent sections that can be arranged individually or in various combinations.

### Data

da•ta (dātə, datə, dätə),USA pronunciation n.
1. a pl. of  datum.
2. (used with a pl. v.) individual facts, statistics, or items of information: These data represent the results of our analyses. Data are entered by terminal for immediate processing by the computer.
3. (used with a sing. v.) a body of facts;
information: Additional data is available from the president of the firm.
Data is a plural of datum, which is originally a Latin noun meaning "something given.'' Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning "facts or pieces of information'' (These data are described more fully elsewhere) and as a singular mass noun meaning "information'': Not much data is available on flood control in Brazil.It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. In other types of writing it is either singular or plural. The singular datum meaning "a piece of information'' is now rare in all types of writing. In surveying and civil engineering, where datum has specialized senses, the plural form is datums.

### Series

se•ries (sērēz),USA pronunciation n., pl.  -ries, adj.
n.
1. a group or a number of related or similar things, events, etc., arranged or occurring in temporal, spatial, or other order or succession;
sequence.
2. a number of games, contests, or sporting events, with the same participants, considered as a unit: The two baseball clubs played a five-game series.
3. a set, as of coins or stamps.
4. a set of successive volumes or issues of a periodical published in like form with similarity of subject or purpose.
• a daily or weekly program with the same cast and format and a continuing story, as a soap opera, situation comedy, or drama.
• a number of related programs having the same theme, cast, or format: a series of four programs on African wildlife.
• a sequence of terms combined by addition, as 1 + ½ + ¼ + &fracnumer;
1&fracdenom;
8&fracend;
+ ...½n.
• See  infinite series.
5. a succession of coordinate sentence elements.
6. a division of stratified rocks that is of next higher rank to a stage and next lower rank to a system, comprising deposits formed during part of a geological epoch.
7. an end-to-end arrangement of the components, as resistors, in a circuit so that the same current flows through each component. Cf.  parallel (def. 13).
8. a group of related chemical elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number: the lanthanide series.

1. consisting of or having component parts connected in series: a series circuit; a series generator.

### Vs

vs.,
1. verse.
2. versus.

V.S.,
• Veterinary Surgeon.

• v.s.,
• vide supra.

• ### Cross

cross (krôs, kros),USA pronunciation  n., v., adj.,  -er, -est.
n.
1. a structure consisting essentially of an upright and a transverse piece, upon which persons were formerly put to death.
2. any object, figure, or mark resembling a cross, as two intersecting lines.
3. a mark resembling a cross, usually an X, made instead of a signature by a person unable to write.
4. the Cross, the cross upon which Jesus died.
5. a figure of the Cross as a Christian emblem, badge, etc.
6. the Cross as the symbol of Christianity.
7. a small cross with a human figure attached to it, as a representation of Jesus crucified;
crucifix.
8. a sign made with the right hand by tracing the figure of a cross in the air or by touching the foreheard, chest, and shoulders, as an act of devotion.
9. a structure or monument in the form of a cross, set up for prayer, as a memorial, etc.
10. any of various conventional representations or modifications of the Christian emblem used symbolically or for ornament, as in heraldry or art: a Latin cross; a Maltese cross.
11. the crucifixion of Jesus as the culmination of His redemptive mission.
12. any suffering endured for Jesus' sake.
13. the teaching of redemption gained by Jesus' death.
14. the Christian religion, or those who accept it;
Christianity;
Christendom.
15. an opposition;
thwarting;
frustration.
16. any misfortune;
trouble.
17. a crossing of animals or plants;
a mixing of breeds.
18. an animal, plant, breed, etc., produced by crossing;
crossbreed.
19. a person or thing that is intermediate in character between two others.
20. [Boxing.]a punch thrown across and over the lead of an opponent.
21. a contest the result of which is dishonestly arranged beforehand.
22. a crossing.
23. a place of crossing.
24. [Plumbing.]a four-way joint or connection.
25. an actor's movement from one area of a stage to another.
26. Also called  cross-trade. an arrangement for the simultaneous sale and purchase of a block of stock handled by a single broker.
27. [Mach.]spider (def. 6b).
28. (cap.) See  Southern Cross.
29. bear one's cross, to accept trials or troubles patiently.
30. take the cross, to make the vows of a crusader.

v.t.
1. to move, pass, or extend from one side to the other side of (a street, river, etc.).
2. to put or draw (a line, lines, etc.) across.
3. to cancel by marking with a cross or with a line or lines (often fol. by off or out).
4. to mark with a cross.
5. to lie or pass across;
intersect.
6. to meet and pass.
7. to transport across something.
8. to assist or guide (a person) across a street or intersection: The guard crossed the child at the traffic light.
9. to place in the form of a cross or crosswise.
10. [Biol.]to cause (members of different genera, species, breeds, varieties, or the like) to interbreed.
11. to oppose openly;
thwart;
frustrate.
12. to betray;
double-cross.
13. to make the sign of a cross upon or over, as in devotion: to cross oneself.
14. to set (a yard) in proper position on a mast.
15. [Obs.]to confront in a hostile manner.

v.i.
1. to lie or be athwart;
intersect.
2. to move, pass, or extend from one side or place to another: Cross at the intersection.
3. to meet and pass.
4. to interbreed.
5. [Theat.]to move from one side of the stage to the other, esp. by passing downstage of another actor.
6. cross one's heart. See  heart (def. 22).
7. cross one's mind. See  mind (def. 21).
8. cross one's path. See  path (def. 6).
9. cross over:
• [Biol.](of a chromosome segment) to undergo crossing over.
• to switch allegiance, as from one political party to another.
• to change successfully from one field of endeavor, genre, etc., to another: to cross over from jazz to rock.
• Also,  cross over to the other side. to die;
pass away.
10. cross someone's palm. See  palm 1 (def. 11).
11. cross up:
• to change arrangements made with;
deceive: He crossed me up after we had agreed to tell the police the same story.
• to confuse: I was supposed to meet him at the station, but got crossed up.

1. angry and annoyed;
ill-humored;
snappish: Don't be cross with me.
2. lying or passing crosswise or across each other;
athwart;
transverse: cross timbers.
3. involving a reciprocal action, interchange, or the like: a cross-endorsement of political candidates; cross-marketing of related services.
4. contrary;
opposite: They were at cross purposes with each other.
unfavorable.
6. crossbred;
hybrid.
crossa•bil′i•ty, n.

### Sectional

1. pertaining or limited to a particular section;
local or regional: sectional politics.
2. composed of several independent sections: a sectional sofa.
3. of or pertaining to a section: a sectional view of the machine.

n.
1. a sofa composed of several independent sections that can be arranged individually or in various combinations.

### Data

da•ta (dātə, datə, dätə),USA pronunciation n.
1. a pl. of  datum.
2. (used with a pl. v.) individual facts, statistics, or items of information: These data represent the results of our analyses. Data are entered by terminal for immediate processing by the computer.
3. (used with a sing. v.) a body of facts;
information: Additional data is available from the president of the firm.
Data is a plural of datum, which is originally a Latin noun meaning "something given.'' Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning "facts or pieces of information'' (These data are described more fully elsewhere) and as a singular mass noun meaning "information'': Not much data is available on flood control in Brazil.It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. In other types of writing it is either singular or plural. The singular datum meaning "a piece of information'' is now rare in all types of writing. In surveying and civil engineering, where datum has specialized senses, the plural form is datums.

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